Coordinator: Margaret W. Hughes, Africana Librarians Council, Cataloging Committee

This report covers the period from Nov. 2015 to Oct. 2016.  Since the last report 5 new and 10 revised subject heading proposals were reviewed by funnel participants and submitted to the Library of Congress. The proposals originated with Margaret Hughes (Stanford), Joe Lauer (Michigan State), Peter Limb (Michigan State), Janet Stanley (Smithsonian), and Marcia Tiede (Northwestern).


Afo (African people) –> Afo (Nigerian people)

Attie language

Bafo (African people)

Congo (Brazzaville)—History—Coup d’état, 1968

Felup (African people) –> Jola-Felupe (African people)

Fon (African people)

Janjanbureh Island (Gambia)

Mankanya language

Margi language –> Marghi language

Okiek language

Proverbs, Ashanti – deleted in lieu of: Proverbs, Twi

Rudolf, Lake (Kenya and Ethiopia) –> Turkana, Lake (Kenya and Ethiopia)

Tuki language

Ubuntu (Philosophy)

Wumbvu language


Ajatado (African people)                [see:

Berber languages                            [see:

Cental Atlas Tamazight language [see:

Karon (African people)    [see:

Tsotsitaal languages        [see:


Indigenous peoples—South Africa; Indigenous peoples—Angola; Blacks—South Africa; Blacks—Angola

“These proposals were made to deprecate the headings Indigenous peoples—South Africa and Indigenous peoples—Angola in favor of Blacks—South Africa and Blacks—Angola, respectively.

Blacks is an ethnic group and Indigenous peoples is a class of persons. Although the indigenous peoples of South Africa and Angola are indeed black, the two headings are not synonymous.  The heading Blacks refers to blacks as an element of the population, and when a country is predominantly black – as South Africa and Angola are – it is used only for works that discuss blacks apart from other groups in the country. Indigenous peoples, meanwhile, is defined as “the aboriginal inhabitants either of colonial areas or of modern states where the aboriginal peoples are not in control of the government” (see the scope notes for Blacks and Indigenous peoples).

The heading Indigenous peoples is valid for works about the colonial period in each country, as well as works about apartheid-era South Africa. It is not valid for works about post-1975 Angola and post-1994 South Africa.  The heading Blacks is valid for works about blacks as a distinct element of the population during any time period, and particularly those works that discuss the group from an ethnological, anthropological, socio-economic, etc., viewpoint.

A review of LC’s database showed that the headings are generally applied correctly.

The meeting recognizes that some general headings for the indigenous peoples of the Americas (e.g., Indians of Central America) have a UF in the form Indigenous peoples—[place], thereby conflating ethnic groups and classes of persons. That exceptional practice will be resolved as a separate issue.

The proposals were not approved because the deprecated headings are not synonymous with those proposed as replacements.”


The following authority records have been deleted because the subject headings are covered by identical name headings: Amon (Egyptian deity), Aten (Egyptian deity), Horus (Egyptian deity).

The scope notes for “diaspora” headings have been revised following the pattern for African diaspora:

African diaspora    [Not Subd Geog]    [sp 91005631 ]
SA headings of the type Africans–[place] or Blacks–[place] DELETE FIELD
Here are entered works dealing with the dispersion of Black Africans to countries outside of the African Continent. DELETE FIELD

Here are entered works dealing with the movement of Black Africans to countries outside of the African Continent. For works on Black Africans who have settled outside Africa, an additional heading is assigned to designate the place where they have settled, e.g., Africans–Germany; Blacks–Central America. ADD FIELD


Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings: Monthly Lists for Nov. 2015-Oct. 2016

The submitting library’s MARC21 code appears after each entry.

African drama (Portuguese) – DLC

Algeria—Social conditions—1830-1962 – CSt

Almanacs, Algerian – DLC

Almanacs, Berber – DLC

Art, Cham-Mwana – NN

Art, Gambian – DLC

Art, Rwandan – DLC

Authors, Equatorial Guinean – Uk

Bandjoun literature – CSt

Bi’r Minayh Site (Egypt) – UkCU

Cham-Mwana (African people) – NN

Collage, Algerian – DLC

Coups d’état—Congo (Brazzaville) – DLC

Creative nonfiction, African (English) – CaOONL

Cufada Lake (Guinea-Bissau) – IEN

Diouboye (Extinct city) – IEN

Dramatists, Nigerien – IEN

Drawing, Ivoirian – DLC

Duala (African people) – CSt

Egyptians in literature – DLC

Enya language – DLC

Folk literature, Bandjoun – CSt

Folk literature, West African – CSt

Foreign workers, Mauritian – CSt

Gadabano (African people) – DLC

Gambian fiction (English) – WaU

Gambian literature (English) – DLC

Gawwada language – CSt

Gutazar (African people) – DLC

Habbānīyah (Arab tribe) – DLC

Hawwārah (Berber people) – DLC

Ibani (African people) – CSt

Jewish cooking—Moroccan style – CSt

Karon language – CSt

Kukele language – InFwCT

Lesothan fiction (English) – WaU

Love poetry, Tamashek – DLC

Madagascar—History—1992- –> Madagascar—History—1992-2010 – IEN

Madagascar—History—2010- – IEN

Madagascar—Politics and government—1992- –> Madagascar—Politics and government—1992-2010 – IEN

Madagascar—Politics and government—2010-  – IEN

Mahé Island (Seychelles) – WaU

Mālikīyah (Berber tribe) – DLC

Motion picture plays, South African (English) – WaU

Nama poetry – DLC

National characteristics, Angolan – DGPO

National characteristics, Botswanan – DGPO

National characteristics, Burkinabe – DGPO

National characteristics, Djiboutian – DGPO

National characteristics, Gabonese – DGPO

National characteristics, Guinea-Bissauan – DLC

National characteristics, Guinea-Bissauan, in literature – DLC

National characteristics, Nigerien – DGPO

National characteristics, Rwandan – DGPO

National characteristics, Tanzanian – DGPO

National characteristics, Ugandan – DGPO

Ndonga poetry – DLC

Okande (African people) – CSt

Political prisoners’ writings, Moroccan (French) – WaU

Pottery, Cham-Mwana – DLC

Pottery, Nigerian – DLC

Proto-Central Chadic language – UkOxU

Proverbs, Kakwa – CSt

Proverbs, Nubian – CLU

Rawḍ ‘Ā’id Wadi (Egypt) – UkCU

Réserve naturelle de Tsingy du Namoroka (Madagascar) – IEN

Rokel River (Sierra Leone) – IEN

Rokel River Watershed – IEN

Satire, Tamazight – CLU

Short stories, Botswanan (English) – WaU

Short stories, Gambian (English) – WaU

Short stories, Lesothan (English) – WaU

Short stories, South Sudanese (English) – WaU

South Sudanese fiction (English) – WaU

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Coordinator: Margaret W. Hughes, Africana Librarians Council, Cataloging Committee

This report covers the period from Nov. 2014 to Oct. 2015.  Since the last report 24 new and 29 revised subject heading proposals were reviewed by funnel participants and submitted to the Library of Congress. The proposals originated with Margaret Hughes (Stanford), Joe Lauer (Michigan State), Peter Limb (Michigan State), Chuck Riley (Yale), Janet Stanley (Smithsonian), and Marcia Tiede (Northwestern).


Abe language

Abidji language

Abure language

Adyukru language

Afade dialect –> Afade language

Afar language

Ahizi language

Alladian language

Ama language (Sudan)

Amaa (African people) –> Ama (African people)

Attie language

Bafo language

Borna language

Cross River Mbembe language

Ebrié (African people)

Ébrié Lagoon (Côte d’Ivoire)

Ebrié language

Eleme language

Gambai dialect –> Ngambay language

Guineans (Guinea-Bissauans)

/Hua language

Isoko language

Jarbah Island (Tunisia) –> Jerba Island (Tunisia)

Kambari languages

Kamberi (African people) –> Kambari (African people)

Kébé-kébé (Dance)

Kotoko dialects –> Kotoko languages

Kru languages

Kyak (African people)

Lagwan language

Laka language (Central Sudanic)

Logooli language

Mambai language (Cameroon and Chad)

Mawri (African people)

Mbula language (Nigeria)

Meta language (Cameroon)

Mmen language

Moghamo language

Ngwo language (Cameroon)

Niger—History—Coup d’état, 2010

Okiek (African people)

Punu language

Sama (Angolan people)

Saxwe Gbe language

Sidamo language

Sudanese Creole Arabic language

Sundi (African people) –> Suundi (African people)

Suundi language

Tigon Mbembe language

Tsikimba language

!Xõ language

Zarma (African people)

Zarma dialect –> Zarma language


The funnel is still working with LC on a project to change several “Bantu” headings, such as Bantu art, Bantu law, Bantu mythology and Bantu philosophy.  Use of the word “Bantu” is problematic.

The funnel coordinator spoke with Janis Young at ALA and she too shares our concern regarding the difference (if any) between diaspora headings versus headings constructed as [Ethnic group]—Foreign countries.  PSD will look into it.


Ajatado (African people)                [see:

Bafo (African people)                     [see:

Berber languages                            [see:

Cental Atlas Tamazight language [see:

Okiek language                 [see:

Proverbs, Ashanti             [see:

Tsotsitaal languages        [see:


Africa, Central: proposal to modify scope note      [see:

Africa, English-speaking Central: proposal to establish [see:

Bantu-speaking peoples: proposal to add scope note & disallow geographic subdivision [see:

Lagoon languages: proposal to delete [see:

Sudanese Arabic language: proposal to establish [see:



Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings: Monthly Lists for Nov. 2014-Oct. 2015

The submitting library’s MARC21 code appears after each entry.

Art, Lesothan – DLC

Art, Sudanese – DLC

Art, Swazi – DLC

Authors, Beninese – CSt

Burundian literature (French) – DLC

Cameroonian diaspora – IEN

Cameroonians—Migrations – DLC

Creole dialects, Arabic—South Sudan – DLC

Dadès River Valley (Morocco) – DLC

Deserts—Algeria – DLC

Deserts—Tunisia – DLC

Didactic drama, Swahili – IEN

Djibouti—Languages – DLC

East Africans – VaVbRU

Ethiopia—History—Attempted coup, 1989 – DLC

Fashion—African influences – IEN

Folk drama, Mambila – FU

Folk literature, Burkinabe – IEN

Fuliru language –> Fuliiru language – DLC

Grand Erg Occidental (Algeria) – DLC

Grand Erg Oriental (Algeria and Tunisia) – DLC

Hodna Plain (Algeria) – DLC

Hymns, Fula – FU

Lagoons—Côte d’Ivoire – DLC

Love stories, African (English) –> Romance fiction, African (English) – DLC

Love stories, Ghanaian (English) –> Romance fiction, Ghanaian (English) – DLC

Love stories, Hausa –> Romance fiction, Hausa – DLC

Love stories, Nigerian (English) –> Romance fiction, Nigerian (English) – DLC

Love stories, South African –> Romance fiction, South African – DLC

Love stories, Tanzanian (English) –> Romance fiction, Tanzanian (English) – DLC

Love stories, Ugandan (English) –> Romance fiction, Ugandan (English) – DLC

Love stories, Zimbabwean (English) –> Romance fiction, Zimbabwean (English) – DLC

Magaliesberg (South Africa) – DLC

Mahoran literature (French) – DLC

Makay Mountain (Madagascar) – DLC

Mali—History—Tuareg Rebellion, 2012- —Campaigns – DLC

Mambila drama – DLC

Mambila literature – DLC

Marghād (Berber tribe) – DLC

Men, Maasai – TNJ

Mgeta River (Tanzania) – MiEM

Mountains—Madagascar – DLC

Mythology, San – IEN

National characteristics, Burundian – IEN

National monuments—Nigeria – DLC

N’Djamena, Battle of, N’Djamena, Chad, 2008 – IEN

Operation Serval, 2013-2014 – IEN

Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove (Oshogbo, Nigeria) – IEN

Paranormal fiction, Congolese (Brazzaville) (French) – IEN

Parc national de Birougou (Gabon) – CSt

Parc national de la Lopé (Gabon) – CSt

Parc national de Loango (Gabon) – CSt

Parc national de Mayumba (Gabon) – CSt

Parc national de Minkébé (Gabon) – CSt

Parc national de Moukalaba-Doudou (Gabon) – CSt

Parc national de Waka (Gabon) – CSt

Parc national des plateaux Batéké (Gabon) – CSt

Peacekeeping forces, Ghanaian – IEN

Posters, Algerian – Uk

Proverbs, Guro – DLC

Proverbs, Kabyle – CSt

Proverbs, Nupe – CSt

Riddles, Yoruba – IEN

Rwandan literature (English) – CLU

Rwandan poetry (English) – CLU

Sacred groves—Nigeria – DLC

Sand dunes—Algeria – DLC

Sand dunes—Tunisia – DLC

Sculpture, Ghanaian – IEN

Short stories, Togolese (French) – DLC

Speeches, addresses, etc., African – CSt

Speeches, addresses, etc., Angolan – CSt

Speeches, addresses, etc., Ivoirian – CSt

Talking drum – CaStSMF

Talking drum music – CaStSMF

Tel el-Kebir, Battle of, Egypt, 1882 – Uk

Yoruba (African people)—Migrations – DLC

Yoruba diaspora – IEN










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New England Code4Lib presentation

I recently gave a lightning talk at Hampshire College during the New England Code4Lib meeting on the progress of Unicode implementation in the Yale library catalog, with reference to African scripts.  Here are the slides from that presentation:  unicode-implementation-in-the-yale-catalog.  Enjoy!  I’ll be happy to provide more details and documentation on request.

Update #1:  I’m seeing that the screenshots I provided to records in the Yale Library catalog are too small to be easily read.  The live links to those records are: and

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Dictionary in Baga Tshi-Tem

Courtesy of Frederick John Lamp, curator emeritus of the African art collection at the Yale Art Gallery, a Baga Tshi-Tem (Sitem) Dictionary is now available online for study.  It runs to about three thousand words, containing entries for a few other Baga languages as well.  It is the result of several years of research in Guinea by Fred.  The group that he worked with also turned up evidence of another Baga language that was not known to researchers before, Tshol.  A much shorter wordlist of about 100 words and phrases has been drafted for that language.  The numbers have yet to be added in.  Pending permission clearance with David Conrad, I will upload it here as well in an update to this post.

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Mende notebooks of Bokari Kanneh, ca. 1950

Some notebooks have recently been transferred, within Yale, from the Art Gallery to the special collections of Sterling Memorial Library’s Manuscripts and Archives.  A snippet of the kind of content contained in the notebooks can be found here.  These were donated by Dr. Konrad Tuchscherer of St. John’s University.

In principle, the text should be fairly straightforward to transcribe, following the Unicode code chart here for the Kikakui script of the Mende language.  But there is enough variance between the manuscript and the encoding that it will take some extra efforts to ensure that an accurate transcription can be made.  Please leave a comment if you have any competence in Mende or familiarity with the Kikakui script; I’d love to hear from you!

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A Vai manuscript from 1913

In 2005, Dr. Mohamed B. Nyei and Dr. John Singler brought to my attention a manuscript of 180 pages that had been borrowed in Liberia from the family of its author, Boima Kiakpomgbo. With Mohamed’s permission, I digitized the manuscript that year using a large-format scanner. Since last year, Tombekai Sherman has been working to transcribe and translate the manuscript. I am posting here files from the work in progress, as Mohamed prepares to return to Liberia later this year.


MSVai1913_1_1 MSVai1913_1_2 MSVai1913_1_3 MSVai1913_1_4

MSVai1913_1_5 MSVai1913_1_6 MSVai1913_1_7 MSVai1913_1_8

MSVai1913_2_1 MSVai1913_2_2 MSVai1913_2_3 MSVai1913_2_4


MSVai1913_3_1 MSVai1913_3_2 MSVai1913_3_3

MSVai1913_4_1 MSVai1913_4_2

MSVai1913_5_1 MSVai1913_5_2

MSVai1913_6_1 MSVai1913_6_2 MSVai1913_6_3 MSVai1913_6_4

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The Mandombe script

Another script that merits further review is the Mandombe script developed by David Wabeladio Payi, a Congolese follower of Simon Kimbangu.  Here is a link to the most recent proposal for its inclusion into Unicode.  There are at least twenty or so books and one map that have been produced so far using the script, which is technically a little more complex than most in the way its characters combine.  All the characters are geometric compositions of horizontal, vertical and diagonal lines.  It has a distinctive look, with fourteen combining diacritics and four acute accents that do not combine.

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Some favorites

Here’s a sample of a few of the more memorable records I’ve had the pleasure of cataloging.  Hope you’ll find them intriguing and maybe worth checking out:

Dictionnaire de poche : Français-Tamazight : Tamazight-Français.

Manuel de conjugaison de l’amazighe = Adlis n usfti n tmaziɣt.

Pátris Lúmunba kótíi fɔ́lɔfɔlɔ̀ fàa ɲá dɔ́sarì.

Winden jangen e hāla Pular : deftere tāli e tindi Pular.

Meqoqo ea phirimana.

Articles : publiés dans le bulletin de l’IFAN, Institut fondamental d’Afrique noire, 1962-1977.

YaBihon ʼālam.

YaRāsśélās masfena ʼItyoṗyā tārik.

Livre d’initiation au Garay.

Update #1 (4/14/16):  The first two records both use Tifinagh script, which at first wasn’t displaying natively in the Chrome browser; an extension was needed for Tifinagh display support.  Now that appears to be rectified; the Tifinagh script should be displaying well across most of the common browsers:  Chrome, Explorer and Firefox.  I haven’t tried viewing it on Safari yet though.

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The Bété alphabet of Frédéric Bruly Bouabré

One of the more interesting artists who I’ve had the pleasure to meet is Frédéric Bruly Bouabré, also known as Cheick Nadro.  He passed away in 2014 at the age of 89; his son Olivier called me with the sad news in January of that year.  I was fortunate to have met with him in 2009 with the assistance of Francis Tagro Gnoleba and Tombekai Sherman at Bouabré’s house in Yopougon.  A small sample of the iconic pictographic alphabet that he was inspired to invent can be found here.  A more extensive review of the entirety of his work can be found in this four-volume text, published in 2013.  The Yale copy is non-circulating, but scans of chapters may be requested.  Other libraries that hold this work in the U.S. include Michigan State, Wisconsin, and Northwestern University.  The text includes an extensive bibliography.

Update #1 (4/12/16):  I believe the text linked to below has not been published anywhere; it is apparently a continuation from three cahiers written about by Théodore Monod and Denis Escudier.  If I am mistaken and it has already been published, please contact me to let me know and I will comply with a request to take it down.  I just talked with Olivier Bouabré, who asked me to send him a link, and I believe this is what he is looking for.


Update #2 (5/12/16):  Audio recitation of the invented pictographic alphabet by Bouabré in his own voice, part 1:

and part 2:

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Links to texts drafted by El Hadj Assane Faye using the Garay script for the Wolof language


These texts by Assane Faye were digitized by me (Charles Riley) in Dakar in 2009 at Faye’s house.  They are all in Wolof, on a variety of subjects, from mathematics to social morals to animal tales.  I think number four is on political philosophy.  They merit further study and more attention than what I can give them at the moment.

FayeMS1 FayeMS2 FayeMS3 FayeMS4 FayeMS5

Update #1 (5/12/16):  Audio recitation of the sounds of the invented alphabet by Faye, in his own voice:

And some links to audio of comments made at a press conference given by Faye in 2009:

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